البراءة الموضوعیة

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد عالی خارج فقه و اصول حوزه علمیه قم

2 استاد سطوح عالیه

چکیده

ان القول بجریان البراءة فی متعلق التکالیف مشهور بین المحققین، ولکن ینبغی ملاحظة ان المتعلق قد یکون موضوعا لتکالیف أخر، وجریان البراءة لایکفی لترتب تلک الاحکام، حیث ان البراءة لاتکون اصلا موضوعیا، بل مقتضى الاستصحاب عدم ترتب تلک الاحکام، کیف تجری البراءة فی المتعلق ولکن لاتترتب تلک الآثار والاحکام؟، فهل یمکن الالتزام بسقوط التکلیف بالصلاة الفاقدة للجزء المشکوک، ظاهرا، مع عدم ترتب آثار الصلاة الصحیحة لاجل الاستصحاب؟ وهذا قد یوجب التعارض عرفا بین البراءة عن تعلق التکلیف بهذا العمل وبین استصحاب عدم ترتب آثاره، حیث ان العرف یرى التلازم بین المعذوریة وعدم العقاب وبین صحة العمل وترتب الآثار. هذه المقالة تحاول تبیین المشکلة وبیان حلها وذکر بعض تطبیقاتها الفقهیة.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Thematic Absolution (al-Barāʾa al-Mawdhūʿiyya)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Muhammad Taqi Shahidi 1
  • Sayyid Hasan Ruhbakhsh 2
1 Professor of foreign jurisprudence and principles of Qom seminary
2 The professor is excellent
چکیده [English]

The claim that al-Barāʾa (being absolved from performing an act) operates in relation to the duties is well known among researchers. It should, however, be noted that the thing to which the Principle of al-Barāʾa (absolution) extends may be the subject of other obligations. The Principle of al-Barāʾa is not sufficient for the application of those obligations because the principle of absolution is not a thematic principle. In fact, based on the Principle of al-Istiṣḥāb (presumption of continuity), those laws are not binding. The question is: How does absolution function when those effects and laws are not binding. Can it be said that the prayer is no longer obligatory when it lacks a doubted part inasmuch as the prayer is not considered correct because of the Principle of al-Istiṣḥāb. This may necessitate a contradiction, in the eye of custom, between being absolved from fulfilling the obligation and the presumption of the invalidity of the prayer. That is because according to custom there is correlation between maʿdhūriyya (being justified) and impunity and between the validity of the act (of worship) and its taking legal effect. This article attempts to explain the problem, find a solution, and mention some of its jurisprudential applications.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • circumstantial absoluteness
  • absolution in minimum and maximum
  • thematic Istiṣḥāb
  • apparent laws
  • typical negligence